Chronic kidney disease assessment and management: updated guidance
How to predict risk, ensure timely treatment and advise patients on its management
The term chronic kidney disease (CKD) describes abnormal kidney function or structure. It’s a common condition; about three million people in the UK have CKD, the charity Kidney Care UK says.
CKD often occurs with other conditions, such as cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and risk factors include increasing age, family history of CKD, smoking, overweight, high blood pressure and a black, Asian or minority ethnic background.
Moderate to severe CKD is linked to increased risk of acute kidney injury, falls, frailty and mortality.
While CKD is usually asymptomatic, it is detectable with simple blood and urine tests. The National
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