Our clinical update on new NICE guidance on tackling antimicrobial resistance.
Our clinical update on new National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance on tackling antimicrobial resistance
Antimicrobial resistance develops when the medicines are used inappropriately. Global estimates suggest that every year more than 700,000 people die from drug-resistant strains of common bacterial and viral infections, such as HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. If antimicrobial resistance continues to increase, this number could rise to 10 million a year by 2050.
Simple steps such as teaching all children to wash their hands and to manage common infections themselves could help reduce the use of antibiotics, according to new guidance. NICE recommendations aim to educate the general public on how they can contribute in the battle against antimicrobial resistance. The guidance recommends children in nurseries and young people living away from home be taught when and how to wash and dry their hands, how to correctly use antimicrobial medicines and the dangers associated with their overuse and misuse.
Signs and symptoms
Without effective antimicrobials, procedures such as organ transplantation, surgery, chemotherapy and diabetes management become high risk. Antimicrobial resistance increases the cost of health care, with longer stays in hospitals and more intensive care required.
Causes and risk factors
Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses, change when they are exposed to antimicrobial drugs. As a result, the medicines become ineffective and infections persist in the body, increasing the risk of spread to others. Misuse and overuse of antimicrobials speeds up the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance.
How you can help your patient
Give patients advice on managing the symptoms of self-limiting infections. If antimicrobials are prescribed, share verbal and written information on how to use them safely, including not sharing them with anyone else or keeping them for another time. Share safety-netting advice with everyone who has an infection, including how long symptoms are likely to last, what to do if symptoms get worse and when to seek more medical advice.
Karen Shaw, infection prevention and control lead for Public Health England antimicrobial resistance programme:
'Infection prevention is an important part of tackling antimicrobial resistance. Preventing an infection in the first place means antibiotics are not needed. One of the most effective ways we can prevent infection is through regular and thorough handwashing, particularly after using the toilet and before eating. Nurses play a valuable role in educating children and families in how to reduce infections. This includes teaching them about the importance of hand hygiene, vaccination and how to use antibiotics appropriately; for example, not using them for viral infections such as coughs and colds.'
Find out more
- NICE guidance Antimicrobial stewardship: changing risk-related behaviours in the general population
- NICE guidance Antimicrobial stewardship: systems and processes for effective antimicrobial medicine use
- Tool to teach children about microbes – e-bug
- RCN document on antimicrobial resistance