CPD articles

Our continuing professional development (CPD) articles are designed to assist with your nursing skills and practice.

Effective management of type 1 diabetes in children and young people

Effective management of type 1 diabetes in children and young people

Why you should read this article: • To enhance your knowledge of what the optimal management and monitoring of type 1 diabetes entails • To improve your practice in providing support to children with type 1 diabetes and their families • To count towards revalidation as part of your 35 hours of CPD, or you may wish to write a reflective account (UK readers) • To contribute towards your professional development and local registration renewal requirements (non-UK readers) Type 1 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes among children and young people, and requires careful management to ensure that blood glucose levels stay as close as possible to the target range. Suboptimal management can lead to serious health consequences, including damage to various organs and body systems. Many children with type 1 diabetes are not diagnosed until they develop diabetic ketoacidosis, which is distressing and potentially life-threatening. This article provides an overview of the management of type 1 diabetes in children and young people, including the insulin replacement therapy and dietary management required. It also emphasises the importance of regular and ongoing monitoring of blood glucose levels, quarterly measurement of glycated haemoglobin, and the management of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia.

Self-harm in young people: risk factors, assessment and treatment interventions

Why you should read this article • To recognise that self-harm in young people is common and increasing in prevalence • To increase your awareness of child-centred best practice approaches to caring for young people who self-harm • To count towards revalidation as part of your 35 hours of CPD, or you may wish to write a reflective account (UK readers) • To contribute towards your professional development and local registration renewal requirements (non-UK readers) Self-harm, where an individual purposefully harms themselves with a non-fatal outcome, is common, especially among young people. A wide range of mental health issues are associated with self-harm and it increases the likelihood that the person will eventually die by suicide. This article explores the motivations for self-harming behaviours, risk and protective factors, the components of risk assessment and potential interventions. Self-harm can be associated with stigma and discrimination in society and in healthcare services. This article aims to support healthcare practitioners in providing non-judgemental, empathetic and respectful care to these young people and their families and carers.

Biological basis of child health 8: development of the gastrointestinal system and associated childhood conditions

Biological basis of child health 8: development of the gastrointestinal system and...

Why you should read this article: • To enhance your knowledge of the development of the gastrointestinal (GI) system • To understand the causes and management of various GI conditions that infants and children may present with • To count towards revalidation as part of your 35 hours of CPD, or you may wish to write a reflective account (UK readers) • To contribute towards your professional development and local registration renewal requirements (non-UK readers) This article is the eighth in a series on the biological basis of child health. It describes the embryological development of the gastrointestinal (GI) system and some of the structural anomalies that may arise during that time and later affect GI functioning. The article also discusses the functions of the GI tract – including ingestion, digestion, absorption and defecation – and explains how these relate to GI conditions seen in infants and children. GI conditions are common in childhood and some of these will be medical emergencies, so it is important that children’s nurses have knowledge of the GI system and of the presentation and management of GI conditions in children.

Focus on asthma 2: air pollution and its effects on children and young people

Focus on asthma 2: air pollution and its effects on children and young people

Why you should read this article: • To identify the adverse effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution on children, particularly those with asthma • To increase your knowledge of how to support children, families and schools to limit their exposure to air pollution and reduce their own emissions of pollutants • To count towards revalidation as part of your 35 hours of CPD, or you may wish to write a reflective account (UK readers) • To contribute towards your professional development and local registration renewal requirements (non-UK readers) This article is the second in a series on asthma. The first article identified that the UK is experiencing an ‘epidemic’ of childhood asthma and one of the major culprits is air pollution. This article examines the main causes of air pollution and how they affect the lung health of children from before birth and onwards. It considers the contribution of indoor and outdoor air pollution, how these have changed over time and the unequal effect they may have on vulnerable populations. The nurse’s role is discussed, not only in terms of clinical care, but also as adviser to families and schools on what actions to take to limit their exposure and reduce their own emissions of pollutants.

Biological basis of child health 7: growth, development and the reproductive system

Biological basis of child health 7: growth, development and the reproductive system

Understanding childhood growth and development is crucial for children’s nurses

Focus on asthma 1: the state of care for children and young people in the UK and globally

Focus on asthma 1: the state of care for children and young people in the UK and...

Why you should read this article • To enhance your knowledge of global and UK trends in asthma and asthma care as it relates to children and young people • To recognise the importance of social determinants of health such as smoking, air pollution and inadequate housing in the development of asthma • To count towards revalidation as part of your 35 hours of CPD, or you may wish to write a reflective account (UK readers) • To contribute towards your professional development and local registration renewal requirements (non-UK readers) This is the first in a series of articles on asthma, the most prevalent long-term condition in children with a significant burden of disease. This first article presents an overview of the state of asthma and asthma care in the UK and globally, especially as it relates to children and young people. It considers prevalence, age and sex comparisons, causation, morbidity and mortality rates, cost and the quality of care. It also outlines what children and young people wish for their asthma care.

Biological basis of child health 6: development of the skeletal system and orthopaedic conditions

Biological basis of child health 6: skeletal system and orthopaedic conditions

An overview of the development of the skeletal system before and after birth

Biological basis of child health 5: development of the respiratory system and elements of respiratory assessment

Biological basis of child health 5: development of the respiratory system and elements...

Development of the respiratory system and conditions that can occur in infants and children

Basic life support for children and young people with a learning or physical disability and an altered body shape

BLS for children with a learning or physical disability and an altered body shape

Nurses need to undertake basic life support effectively while complying with guidelines

Equipping children’s nurses to de-escalate conflict and communicate challenging information

Equipping nurses to de-escalate conflict and communicate challenging information

This article considers some of the challenging situations children’s nurses may encounter

Biological basis of child health 4: an overview of the central nervous system and principles of neurological assessment

Biological basis of child health 4: an overview of the central nervous system and...

This article is the fourth in a series on the biological basis of child health

Biological basis of child health 3: development of the cardiovascular system and congenital heart defects

Biological basis of child health 3: development of the cardiovascular system and...

Cardiovascular system development during gestation and how congenital heart defects arise

Biological basis of child health 2: fertilisation, prenatal development and birth

The period from fertilisation to birth is crucial in the development of an individual

Biological basis of child health 1: understanding the cell and genetics

An introduction to cell biology and genetics for children’s nurses

Care and management of children with a totally implanted central venous access device:...

Research and advances in technology have enabled children and young people with life-...

The Me first communication model

This article explores communication and decision-making with children and young people in...

Diagnosing and managing migraine in children and young people

This article gives an overview of migraine in children. It outlines the epidemiology of the...

An update on complementary feeding

Complementary feeding is an important developmental milestone in children and occurs at a...

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