Evidence and Practice
In sepsis, prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment are vital
Why you should read this article: • To refresh your knowledge of the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 • To understand how to apply the Mental Capacity Act 2005 in people with learning disabilities • To familiarise yourself with the upcoming changes introduced by the Mental Capacity (Amendment) Act 2019 The Mental Capacity Act 2005, applicable to England and Wales only, was introduced to empower and protect people who are unable to make their own decisions. The act emphasises the importance of assuming a person has capacity to make decisions unless proven otherwise and recognises that people should be able to make seemingly unwise decisions. This article aims to provide an understanding of the Mental Capacity Act 2005, to support practitioners in undertaking and documenting capacity assessments. It presents a case study involving a young man with learning disabilities living in a care home under Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS), in which an issue arose about his capacity to decline a healthcare procedure. It explains the process that was used to assess his capacity to make this decision, and what actions were subsequently taken. The article concludes by outlining the changes made by the Mental Capacity (Amendment) Act 2019, including the introduction of Liberty Protection Safeguards, which are due to replace DoLS in April 2022.
Why you should read this article: • To outline how learning disability settings can prepare for and manage COVID-19 outbreaks • To recognise the importance of developing a contingency plan to manage a COVID-19 outbreak in a learning disability setting • To identify the need to support clients with learning disabilities when reinforcing public health messages about COVID-19 This article describes the experience of preparing for, and managing, a small COVID-19 outbreak that affected clients and staff in a learning disability setting. To demonstrate the likelihood of transmission, a timeline was developed to map the trajectory of symptomatic individuals and confirmed cases. Practices such as effective hand hygiene and wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) were observed by staff members. COVID-19 transmission containment measures included: isolation of clients who had tested positive for COVID-19, nomination of specific staff members to care for clients who had tested positive, and amending duty rotas to prevent staff crossover between various units. The frequency of environmental cleaning was also increased. On-site refresher training for medical, nursing and domestic staff focused on coronavirus transmission, PPE, hand hygiene and environmental cleaning. A contingency plan devised before the COVID-19 outbreak was invaluable because staff members could respond immediately when positive cases were identified among clients and staff members. COVID-19 screening for clients and all staff members was conducted to identify asymptomatic carriers; these individuals were then excluded from work to reduce the risk of potential transmission.
Why you should read this article: • To be aware that social inclusion for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is a focus of welfare policies and legislation in many countries • To recognise that the implementation of policy and legislation for people with IDD is the shared responsibility of governments, and health, education and social care professionals • To identify shared learning among students in health, education and social care programmes as one means of achieving social inclusion for people with IDD Policies for people with disabilities, and specifically those with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), have undergone significant changes during the past three decades. Many people with IDD experience social exclusion, which has significant implications for the individual, their family and wider society. Today the focus is on accessing universal services, care and support in the community to facilitate social inclusion. Professions and professionals in health, education and social services implement social inclusion policy in the field of IDD. However, there is a lack of coherence between the policy intentions of social inclusion and the realities of professional practice. Educational collaborations involving academics, students and practitioners from the professions working with people who have IDD provide an opportunity for shared learning. These collaborations support the development of knowledge and understanding, and the barriers that need to be addressed to achieve social inclusion for people with IDD.
Exploring the Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire
Developing a screening questionnaire to identify people at risk of behaviour that challenges
People with intellectual disabilities have poorer oral health than the general population
The rationale for administering oxygen therapy and the types and equipment that can be used
Mental health concerns among people with intellectual disability and the role of nurses
Asthma is a long-term condition that requires patient education, support and close monitoring. It is important that individuals are empowered and educated about their asthma and supported to self-manage as appropriate. Self-management is a goal that is recommended as an established and effective approach. However, it can be challenging for many individuals, including those with learning disabilities. Learning disability nurses can support individuals diagnosed with asthma to self-manage the condition and should have the knowledge, skills and competence to do so.
Care should be person-centred, holistic and underpinned by current evidence-based practice
The knowledge and skills required to manage patients with a PEG tube safely and effectively