Clinical

Our clinical nursing articles aim to inform and educate nurse practitioners and students. This is achieved through the publication of peer-reviewed, evidence-based, relevant and topical articles.

A simplified approach to critically appraising research evidence

A simplified approach to critically appraising research evidence

The ability to understand and evaluate research builds strong evidence-based practitioners

A practical guide to the systematic application of nominal group technique

A practical guide to the systematic application of nominal group technique

This article provides a rationale for selecting nominal group technique as a research method

Consideration of methodological issues when using photo-elicitation in qualitative research

Methodological issues when using photo-elicitation in qualitative research

This article discusses the significance of photo-elicitation in qualitative research

Factor analysis

A practical example of exploratory factor analysis and critical realism

Why you should read this article: • To gain an understanding of how exploratory factor analysis can link with critical realism • To learn from a practical example of how the actual, empirical and real can be used in a mixed methods study • To be able to articulate and link the different aspects of ontology to link theory to practice Background Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) can link the levels of ontology in critical realism together as described in Summers (2020). Aim To demonstrate how components of the actual can be defined by linking potential factors in the empirical to the theorised generative mechanisms in the real. Discussion This article describes one part of a three-part sequential mixed-methods study that used EFA to describe how components of the actual were linked using factors in the empirical to the generative mechanisms in the real. The author theorised three generative mechanisms: the perceived impact of continuing professional development (CPD) on patient care, the motivations for undertaking CPD and the perceived barriers to CPD. He used EFA to test factors from the empirical against these generative mechanisms to identify linking components in the actual. Conclusion This article shows how components of the actual can be defined using EFA. These components are multifactorial and many factors in the empirical are influenced by different generative mechanisms. Implications for practice Being able to articulate and link the different aspects of ontology enables researchers to define theorised generative mechanisms and link theory to practice.

Misclassification and measurement error – planning a study and interpreting results

Understanding effects of measurement error will enable researchers to interpret study results

When and how to use factorial design in nursing research

When and how to use factorial design in nursing research

Why you should read this article: • Factorial design is underused in nursing research • Factorial design is a cost-effective way to examine different interventions simultaneously • Factorial design is the only design that enables researchers to study and understand how interventions interact Background Quantitative research designs are broadly classified as being either experimental or quasi-experimental. Factorial designs are a form of experimental design and enable researchers to examine the main effects of two or more independent variables simultaneously. They also enable researchers to detect interactions among variables. Aim To present the features of factorial designs. Discussion This article provides an overview of the factorial design in terms of its applications, design features and statistical analysis, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. Conclusion Factorial designs are highly efficient for simultaneously evaluating multiple interventions and present the opportunity to detect interactions amongst interventions. Such advantages have led researchers to advocate for the greater use of factorial designs in research when participants are scarce and difficult to recruit. Implications for practice A factorial design is a cost-effective way to determine the effects of combinations of interventions in clinical research, but it poses challenges that need to be addressed in determining appropriate sample size and statistical analysis.

Use of modified Delphi introduces the risk of chronological bias during clinical research interventions

Use of modified Delphi and risk of chronological bias in clinical research interventions

Raising awareness of the potential to introduce a chronological bias as a confounder

Complementing the P-value from null-hypothesis significance testing with a Bayes factor from null-hypothesis Bayesian testing

Complementing the P-value from null-hypothesis significance testing with a Bayes factor...

Reporting a Bayes factor to complement a P-value adds interpretive value to research

‘Statistical significance’ in research: wider strategies to interpret findings

Researchers need to focus on reporting meaningful research findings

Self-care while undertaking qualitative nursing research

Self-care while undertaking qualitative nursing research

There should be more awareness about potential risks of such research into sensitive topics

Qualitative research interviewing: reflections on power, silence and assumptions

The challenges a novice researcher faced when collecting data using narrative interviews

Why is imposter syndrome so common among nurse researchers and is it a problem?

Imposter syndrome can be unsettling, particularly with specific exposure or peer review

Clinical academic research internships for nurses and allied health professionals

Determining facilitators and barriers to nurses’ participation and engagement in internships

How to embed a conceptual or theoretical framework into a dissertation study design

The benefits of applying a theoretical framework to a research project

Presenting research reflexivity in your PhD thesis

This article highlights the importance of reflexivity in research

Approaches to reviewing the literature in grounded theory: a framework

An overview of grounded theory and how different approaches might tackle literature reviews

A methodology to measure time taken by hospital nurses to make vital signs observations

Development and validation of a methodology for observing time taken for vital signs

Bio-behavioural research in a rare disease population: a doctoral student’s experience

The challenges in researching rare diseases and possible solutions

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