Charles Hendry

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Anatomy and physiology of the senses

This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the sensory systems of the body. Sensory organs may be categorised as general or special. Sensory systems enabling sight, hearing, smell and taste may be classified as special. Sensory systems enabling proprioception, touch, and thermal and pain perception may be classified as general. This article describes the anatomy and physiology of the sensory systems, examining structures associated with vision and hearing, equilibrium and sensation. Common disorders of vision and hearing are also considered, including glaucoma, cataract, age-related hearing impairment and conductive hearing impairment.

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The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin

This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. The structure of the epidermis and dermis are described and their functions are discussed. Accessory structures, such as nails and hair are also considered. Although many diseases of the skin exist, two common conditions – psoriasis and decubitus ulcers – are described in this article.

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Cells, tissues, organs and systems

This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines cellular organisation in the formation of body tissues, membranes, organs and systems. Four main types of body tissue are described: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue. Each class of tissue is described in terms of its structure and function. Where appropriate, subgroups within the classifications are identified. Different membranes in the body are considered and the organisation of tissues and membranes into more complex structures, such as organs and body systems, is outlined.

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Development, growth and repair from conception to old age

As part of the life sciences series, this article discusses the types of development, growth and repair that occur throughout the human body from conception to old age. Particular attention is paid to embryo development in the uterus, changes that occur to women during pregnancy and developmental changes in early childhood. Puberty is examined as well as changes to functional ability and reserve capacity that take place in older age.

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Genetics, mitosis and meiosis

As part of the life sciences series, this article describes the role of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid, genes and chromosomes. The processes of mitosis and meiosis are discussed and some genetic disorders outlined. Possible strategies for future management of genetic disorders are introduced.

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Cells and cell biochemistry

This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, aims to promote understanding of the basic structure and function of cells. It assists healthcare professionals to appreciate the complex anatomy and physiology underpinning the functioning of the human body. Several introductory chemical concepts and terms are outlined. The basic building blocks of all matter, atoms, are examined and the way in which they may interact to form new compounds within the body is discussed. The basic structures and components that make up a typical cell are considered.

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Interpretative phenomenological analysis: a discussion and critique

Aim The aim of this article is to examine the approach of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and to add to discussions regarding the contribution that the approach can make to healthcare research.

Background Interpretative phenomenological analysis is an approach to qualitative, experiential research that has been gaining in momentum and popularity over the past 10-15 years. The approach has its roots in psychology and recognises the central role of the analyst in understanding the experiences of participants. IPA involves a two-stage interpretation process whereby the researcher attempts to interpret how the participants make sense of their experience.

Data sources Interpretative phenomenological analysis is discussed and critiqued in relation to other phenomenological approaches; benefits, potential limitations and rigour of studies using the method are explored.

Review methods This is a methodology discussion that compares and contrasts IPA with other phenomenological approaches.

Conclusion Interpretative phenomenological analysis offers an adaptable and accessible approach to phenomenological research intended to give a complete and in-depth account that privileges the individual. It enables nurses to reach, hear and understand the experiences of participants. Findings from IPA studies can influence and contribute to theory.

Implications for research and practice Achieving a greater understanding of experiences in health care and illness can improve service provision. It is only by understanding meanings that nurses can influence health behaviour and lifestyles.

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Phenomenological approaches: challenges and choices

Phenomenology is a recognised approach for investigating experiences in health research. Difficulties regarding the approach, however, have been documented with even the definitions and terminology sometimes being unclear. In addition to this, there have been claims that many nurse researchers have failed to report how the gap between philosophically related theory and research practice is managed. While legitimacy can be increased by claims regarding theoretical location, there have also been suggestions that engaging too intensely in methodological awareness can hinder the practice and progress of a research project. A balance is therefore required.

This article concentrates on the dilemmas and challenges facing a researcher looking for an appropriate method and approach for a study investigating the experiences of stroke survivors. The challenges of using phenomenology as a research method and the approach of interpretative phenomenological analysis are further considered.

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Pulmonary embolism:identification, clinical features and management

Pulmonary embolism commonly results from blood clots in the venous system which lodge in and block a pulmonary blood vessel. Typical presenting features include chest pain, palpitations, breathing difficulties and haemoptysis. It is a common and potentially fatal condition. Timely diagnosis and treatment can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality rates and nurses need to be aware of the risk factors associated with the condition to identify high-risk patients.

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Qualitative Research Practice

This book is jam-packed with a wide range of material related to qualitative research. The editors and contributors are drawn from a wide international background, and thus, say the editors, the book represents ‘the global nature of the qualitative research enterprise’. The aim in producing it was not simply to produce another handbook of qualitative research but rather to write a book about research practice. To this end, the book draws upon actual research studies to embed the text in the real world of qualitative research. It is particularly aimed at the student reader.

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The Research Process in Nursing

Although there are an increasing number of texts available to nurses in respect of research, The Research Process in Nursing makes a unique contribution. It has stood the test of time having been in print since 1984, and has been a key text for many nurses wishing to learn about or undertake research. This complete revision brings a welcome updating of a comprehensive text which is grounded within UK nursing and nursing research.

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Paracetamol poisoning: physiological aspects and management strategies

This article identifies the physiological aspects of paracetamol poisoning, as well as appropriate treatments. Trends in paracetamol use and initiatives to reduce rates of self-harm are discussed, as well as clinical practice and ways to determine severity of poisoning.

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Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice

This book represents an extensive revision and updating of the 1997 first edition. It includes five new chapters commissioned for this volume. It is intended to be a comprehensive but accessible guide to ‘a variety of methodological approaches to qualitative research’.

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Paracetamol poisoning:physiological aspects and management strategies

This article identifies the physiological aspects of paracetamol poisoning, as well as appropriate treatments. Trends in paracetamol use and initiatives to reduce rates of self-harm are discussed, as well as clinical practice and ways to determine severity of poisoning.

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Interactive qualitative analysis: a systems method for qualitative research

Both authors work at the University of Texas at Austin, and neither has a background in healthcare research. The stated aim of their text is to: ‘help students unscramble the mysteries of qualitative data collection, coding and analysis…’ And they propose using a ‘systematic, qualitative technique: interactive qualitative analysis (IQA)’. There is a hint here that perhaps other approaches to qualitative analysis are not systematic, and that this is not a good thing.

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Nursing research in context: appreciation, application and professional development

Let’s begin with what this book is not. This is, strictly speaking, not a ‘how to do research’ type book. It will not introduce the new researcher to the various research paradigms, nor will it explore the research process. This book will not take the reader through the different ‘ologies’ and ‘ographies’ to be found in research in any depth; neither will it examine, in detail, an assortment of different research methods that might be employed by a would be researcher.

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reviews and round-up

A regular look at recent publications and forthcoming events, courses and information relevant to health care and nursing research

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Understanding allergies and their treatment

Allergies are common and although their effects are often minor, they can be life threatening. The authors discuss the background to allergy and give guidance for prevention and management.

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