Brendan McCormack

How to make nurses confident about research

Ensuring nurses can use and produce research starts with ‘hands-on’ preregistration education

Clinical academics

Nurses and midwives need support if they are to become clinical academics

Flexibility and funding required if nurses are to pursue dual career in practice and research

Getting evidence into practice: ingredients for change

Mounting pressure is being exerted to ensure that the delivery of care is evidence-based and clinically effective. However, the challenge this presents to practitioners is complex. The authors propose that successful implementation of evidence into practice is a function of three elements: the nature of the evidence; the context in which the change is to take place; and the way the process is managed. A framework has been developed to represent these factors. For those about to embark on implementation work, this article closes by highlighting a number of key questions for consideration, stimulated by the framework.

Side rails as physical restraints: the need for appropriate assessment

Side rails are commonly used in the care of the older person. They can be classified as a physical restraint if they restrict the movement of an individual and also if the individual has an inability to have them removed/lowered at will. Advanced age should not be an indicator for side rail use and an individualised approach in patient assessment is advised.

Practice development: individualised care

This article describes the development of a person-centred approach to working with older people. The main focus is on developing the ward leader as a key facilitator of practice development work. This process was enabled through external facilitation of the role and project management. The stages of the project work are outlined using an established practice development framework, which ensured a systematic approach to the change process. Registered nurses developed their skills and knowledge in clinical leadership and by the end of the project, nursing care had moved away from meeting the physical needs of the patients only, to a more individualised approach to patient care.

Defining the boundaries: nursing and personal care

In response to the government’s NHS Plan, the authors assess the difference between ‘personal’ and ‘nursing’ care, and outline the RCN assessment process to enable high quality care.

Keeping the person in the centre of nursing

This article presents an overview of what it means to be a person and how this is articulated in person-centred approaches to practice. Nursing assessment is used as an example of a person-centred approach to care.

The key attributes of agerontological nurse specialist

OLDER PEOPLE have frequently received care thatneither meets their individual needs nor reflectstheir choices (McCormack and Ford 1999). Allolder people have the nght to skilled and accurate assessment, and expert nursing interventions. The undoubtedexpertise demonstrated by individual nurses is vulnerable if it is not articulated in such a way that makes dearto policy makers and budget holders the benefits ofexpert nurses working with older people (RCN 1997). The key attributes of an expert nurse have been definedby Manley and McCormack (1997) and were derivedfrom the work of Benner (1984) and Benner et at (1996). Set out below is a framework for expert practice thatnurses working with older people might consider in relation to their own practice. This framework underpinsseveral strands of the RCN's work in gerontological nurc-ing and is integral to its work on curriculum development for gerontological nurse specialists.

The contribution of expert gerontological nursing

In many ways, the key to the future development of gerontological nursing lies in preventing aspects of its history from becoming the focus of nursing in the future. This article discusses the nursing contribution to the development of person-centred care services and highlights the historical context of gerontological nursing and the reasons why current developmental challenges exist. The authors illustrate examples of good practice and new opportunities for the development of expert practice.